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The Curve Of Time PDF Free Download

Aug 21, 2016 The Curve of Time Melanie Cove is a wonderfully protected small inlet, embedded in the wilderness just south of Desolation Sound. It is about 500 m long by 150 m wide, 4 to 8 m deep, and the bottom is ‘sticky mud’, as the cruising guide puts it. Sticky mud is a good thing, because it means that an anchor is not likely to drag. The least-squares curve-fitting method yields a best fit, not a perfect fit, to the calibration data for a given curve shape (linear. Quadratic, or cubic). Points that fall off the curve are assumed to do so because of random errors or because the actual calibration curve shape does not match the curve-fit equation. The only time you can be sure that you have proportional parts is if the curve that joined these two points was a straight line. And notice, by the way, that by the shape of this curve, the straight line falls below the curve, and therefore, the height that we found was to the straight line, not to the curve. A pre-timed four-phase signal has a critical lane flow rate for the first three phases as 200, 187 and 210 veh/hr with a saturation flow rate of 1800 veh/hr/lane for all phases. The lost time is given as 4 seconds for each phase. If the cycle length is 60 seconds, the effective green time (in seconds) of the fourth phase is. The curve of time by M. Publication date 1990 Topics. ENCRYPTED DAISY download. For print-disabled users. 14 day loan required to access EPUB and PDF files. Books to Borrow. Books for People with Print Disabilities. Internet Archive Books.

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The scikitplot.cluster module includes plots built specifically forscikit-learn clusterer instances e.g. KMeans. You can use your own clusterers,but these plots assume specific properties shared by scikit-learn estimators.The specific requirements are documented per function.

scikitplot.cluster.plot_elbow_curve(clf, X, title='Elbow Plot', cluster_ranges=None, n_jobs=1, show_cluster_time=True, ax=None, figsize=None, title_fontsize='large', text_fontsize='medium')
Download

Plots elbow curve of different values of K for KMeans clustering.

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Parameters:
  • clf – Clusterer instance that implements fit,``fit_predict``, andscore methods, and an n_clusters hyperparameter.e.g. sklearn.cluster.KMeans instance
  • X (array-like, shape (n_samples, n_features)) – Data to cluster, where n_samples is the number of samples andn_features is the number of features.
  • title (string, optional) – Title of the generated plot. Defaults to“Elbow Plot”
  • cluster_ranges (None or list of int, optional) – List ofn_clusters for which to plot the explained variances. Defaults torange(1,12,2).
  • n_jobs (int, optional) – Number of jobs to run in parallel. Defaults to1.
  • show_cluster_time (bool, optional) – Include plot of time it took tocluster for a particular K.
  • ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes, optional) – The axes upon which toplot the curve. If None, the plot is drawn on a new set of axes.
  • figsize (2-tuple, optional) – Tuple denoting figure size of the plote.g. (6, 6). Defaults to None.
  • title_fontsize (string or int, optional) – Matplotlib-style fontsizes.Use e.g. “small”, “medium”, “large” or integer-values. Defaults to“large”.
  • text_fontsize (string or int, optional) – Matplotlib-style fontsizes.Use e.g. “small”, “medium”, “large” or integer-values. Defaults to“medium”.
Returns:
The axes on which the plot was

drawn.

Return type:

ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes)

Example

OP-AMP Interview Questions :-

1. What is an operational amplifier?

An operational amplifier, abbreviated as op-amp, is basically a multi-stage, very high gain, direct-coupled, negative feedback amplifier that uses voltage shunt feedback to provide a stabilized voltage gain.

2. State assumptions made for analyzing ideal op-amp.

Assumptions made for analyzing ideal op-amp are :

  • Infinite open-loop gain
  • Infinite input impedance
  • Zero output impedance
  • Perfect balance
  • Infinite frqeuency bandwidth
  • Infinite slew rate
  • Infinite common-mode rejection ratio
  • Nil drift of characteristics with temperature

3. Explain what is a voltage transfer curve of an op-amp?

The curve drawn between output voltage and input differential voltage, for an op-amp, keeping voltage gain A constant is known as voltage transfer curve.

Time

4. What are differential gain and common-mode gain of a differential amplifier?

When the difference of the two inputs applied to the two terminals of a differential amplifier is amplified, the resultant gain is termed as differential gain. But when the two input terminals are connected to the same input source then the gain established by the differential amplifier is called the common mode gain.

5. Define CMRR.

CMRR is defined as the ration of differential voltage gain to common-mode voltage gain and it is given as CMRR = Ad/Acm

6. Why does an op-amp have high CMRR?

High CMRR ensures that the common mode signals such as noise are rejected successfully and the output voltage is proportional only to the differential input voltage.

7. Why open-loop op-amp configurations are not used in linear applications?

When an op-amp is operated in the open-loop configuration, the output either goes to positive saturation or negative saturation levels or switches between positive and negative saturation levels and thus clips the output above these levels. So open-loop op-amp configurations are not used in linear applications.

8. List the parameters that should be considered for ac and dc applications.

The parameters to be considered for dc applications are:

  • Input offset voltage
  • Input offset current
  • Input bias current
  • Drift

The parameters to be considered for ac applications are:

  • Gain bandwidth product (GBW)
  • Rise time
  • Slew rate
  • Full-power response
  • AC noise

9. Define offset voltage as applied to an op-amp.

Input offset voltage may be defined as that voltage which is to be applied between the input terminals to balance the amplifier.

10. Give the typical value of bias current for CA741 operational amplifier.

80nA

11. Define slew rate.

Slew rate of an op-amp is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage per unit time and is expresses in V/µs.

12. Explain what kind of negative feedback is present in a noninverting op-amp.

Negative voltage-series feedback.

13. Explain what is a voltage follower?

Voltage follower is an electronic circuit in which output voltage tracts the input voltage both in sign and magnitude.

14. What are the advantages of using a voltage follower amplifier?

Voltage follower has three unique characteristics viz. extremely high input impedance, extremely low output impedance and unity transmission gain and is , therefore, an ideal circuit device for use as a buffer amplifier.

15. In Explain what way is the voltage follower a special case of the non-inverting amplifier?

If feedback resistor is made zero or R1 is made ∞(by keeping it open-circuited) in a noninverting amplifier circuit, voltage follower is obtained.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Questions and Answers

16. What is an inverting amplifier?

In an inverting amplifier, the input is connected to the minus or inverting terminal of op-amp.

17. What are the applications of an inverting amplifier?

Inverting amplifier is a very versatile component and can be used for performing number of mathematical stimulation such as analog inverter, paraphrase amplifier, phase shifter, adder, integrator, differentiator.

18. What is a differential amplifier?

Differential amplifier is a combination of inverting and noninverting amplifiers and amplifies the voltage difference between input lines neither of which is grounded.

19. Give examples of linear circuits.

Adder, subtractor, differentiator, integrator fall under the category of linear circuits.

20. Explain what is an adder or summing amplifier?

Adder or summing amplifier is a circuit that provides an output voltage proportional to or equal to the algebraic sum of two or more input voltages multiplied by a constant gain factor.

21. What is an integrator?

An integrator is a circuit that performs a mathematical operation called integration.

Curve

22. What are the applications of integrators?

Integrators are widely used in ramp or sweep generators, filters, analog computers etc.

23. Op-amp is used mostly as an integrator than a differentiator. Explain why?

Op-amp is used mostly as an integrator than a differentiator because in differentiator at high frequency, gain is high and so high-frequency noise is also amplified which absolutely abstract the differentiated signal.

24. What is CMRR?
CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential voltage gain (Ad) to common mode voltage gain (Acm). The formula for CMRR is given below:
CMRR = Ad/Acm

25. What is characteristic of Ideal OPAMP? Important Interview questions on OPAMP
Characteristic of ideal OPAMP are

  1. Infinite voltage gain
  2. Zero output impedance
  3. infinite input impedance
  4. Infinite slew rate
  5. Characteristics not drifting with temperature
  6. Infinite bandwidth

26. What is Amplifier? Important Interview questions on OPAMP
Amplifier is a device that makes sound louder and signal level greater.

27 What is the Formula for Non Inverting Amplifier?
The formula for non inverting amplifier is given as 1+Rf/R1

28. What is perfect balance in OPAMP? Important Interview questions on OPAMP
Perfect balance is the characteristics of ideal OPAMP and if there is same input applied then we will get the output zero. In this condition it is known as perfect balance.

29. Which OPAMP don’t have feedback loop?
Comparator OPAMP (operational amplifier) don’t have feedback loop.

30. Why OPAMP called direct coupled high differential circuit?
OPAMP is called direct coupled because the input of one OPAMP is inserted into the input of another OPAMP. It is called high gain differential circuit because the difference of the two input is amplified.

31. Why OPAMP called operational Amplifier? Important Interview questions on OPAMP
OPAMP it is a direct coupled high gain differential input amplifier. It is called operational amplifier because it is used for performing different functions like differentiation, addition, integration, subtraction. It has infinite voltage gain, infinite slew rate, infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, infinite bandwidth.

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32. What is the output Differentiator and Integrator?
If we give the sinusoidal input in differentiator we will get the output of differentiator as a square output. If we give the sinusoidal input in integrator we will get the output of integrator as a ramp output.

33. For the CMRR to be infinite what will be the condition?
CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential voltage gain (Ad) to common mode voltage gain (Acm). The formula for CMRR is given below:
CMRR = Ad/Acm
If Acm will be zero then only it will be infinite.

34. An ideal operational amplifier has
A. infinite output impedance
B. zero input impedance
C. infinite bandwidth
D. All of the above
Answer: C

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35. Another name for a unity gain amplifier is:
A. difference amplifier
B. comparator
C. single ended
D. voltage follower
Answer: D

36. The open-loop voltage gain (Aol) of an op-amp is the
A. external voltage gain the device is capable of
B. internal voltage gain the device is capable of
C. most controlled parameter
D. same as Acl
Answer: B

37. A series dissipative regulator is an example of a:
A. linear regulator
B. switching regulator
C. shunt regulator
D. dc-to-dc converter
Answer: A

38. A noninverting closed-loop op-amp circuit generally has a gain factor:
A. less than one
B. greater than one
C. of zero
D. equal to one
Answer: B

39. In order for an output to swing above and below a zero reference, the op-amp circuit requires:
A. a resistive feedback network
B. zero offset
C. a wide bandwidth
D. a negative and positive supply
Answer: D

40. Op-amps used as high- and low-pass filter circuits employ which configuration?
A. noninverting
B. comparator
C. open-loop
D. inverting
Answer: D

41. If ground is applied to the (+) terminal of an inverting op-amp, the (–) terminal will:
A. not need an input resistor
B. be virtual ground
C. have high reverse current
D. not invert the signal
Answer: B

42. An astable multivibrator is also known as a:
A. one-shot multivibrator
B. free-running multivibrator
C. bistable multivibrator
D. monostable multivibrator
Answer: B

43. With negative feedback, the returning signal:
A. aids the input signal
B. is proportional to output current
C. opposes the input signal
D. is proportional to differential voltage gain
Answer: C

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44. What starts a free-running multivibrator?
A. a trigger
B. an input signal
C. an external circuit
D. nothing
Answer: D

45. A portion of the output that provides circuit stabilization is considered to be:
A. negative feedback
B. distortion
C. open-loop
D. positive feedback
Answer: A

46. The closed-loop voltage gain of an inverting amplifier equals:
A. the ratio of the input resistance to the feedback resistance
B. the open-loop voltage gain
C. the feedback resistance divided by the input resistance
D. the input resistance
Answer: C

47. All of the following are basic op-amp input modes of operation EXCEPT
A. inverting mode
B. common-mode
C. double-ended
D. single-ended
Answer: A

48. A circuit whose output is proportional to the difference between the input signals is considered to be which type of amplifier?
A. common-mode
B. darlington
C. differential
D. operational
Answer: C

49. With negative feedback, the returning signal
A. is proportional to the output current
B. is proportional to the differential voltage gain
C. opposes the input signal
D. aids the input signal
Answer: C

50. The ratio between differential gain and common-mode gain is called:
A. amplitude
B. differential-mode rejection
C. common-mode rejection
D. phase
Answer: C

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Questions and Answers pdf free download ::

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