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Empress Dowager Cixi PDF Free Download

Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) (Chinese and Japanese: 皇太后; pinyin: húangtàihòu; rōmaji: Kōtaigō; Korean: 황태후 (皇太后); romaja: Hwang Tae Hu; Vietnamese: Hoàng Thái Hậu) is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of an East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) emperor.

The title was also given occasionally to another woman of the same generation, while a woman from the previous generation was sometimes given the title of grand empress dowager (Chinese and Japanese: 太皇太后; pinyin: tàihúangtàihòu; rōmaji: Taikōtaigō; Korean pronunciation: Tae Hwang Tae Hu; Vietnamese: Thái Hoàng Thái Hậu). Numerous empress dowagers held regency during the reign of underage emperors. Many of the most prominent empress dowagers also extended their control for long periods after the emperor was old enough to govern. This was a source of political turmoil according to the traditional view of Chinese history.

The dragon Lady. Such is the nickname given by western observers to a woman who successfully seized power in late imperial China, and subsequently ruled the. Chapter 31 (done) Societies at Crossroads Eyewitness: “Heavenly King” Hong Xiuquan, Empress Dowager Cixi, and Qing Reform Hong Xiuquan: intellect & 3rd son of poor family in south china Neighbors made him village teacher so he could prepare for civil service exams & bring a new honor/wealth to village 1828-1837: failed exams 3x Led to complete breakdown, lapsed into delusions he saw for 40. From Wikisource. Jump to navigation Jump to search. ← Author Index: Ci. (1835–1908) sister projects: Wikipedia article, Commons category, quotes, Wikidata item. Empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908. Apparent realization that establishing personal ties between the Empress Dowager and the Beijing diplomatic community was necessary for constructive international relationships. In a bold step, Cixi hosted a series of gatherings at the palace for the ladies of the legations, assuming that the women would be more amenable to appeals of friendship.

The title dowager empress was given to the wife of a deceased emperor of Russia or Holy Roman emperor.

The Boxer rebellion was an armed and violent anti-imperialist insurrection in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty which was supported by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Boxer rebellion prompted forces from the Eight-Nation Alliance (the U.K., the U.S., France, Germany, Russia, Japan, Italy and Austria-Hungary) to enter.

By country[edit]

For grand empresses dowager, visit grand empress dowager.

East Asia[edit]

Chinese empresses dowager[edit]

Han dynasty
Jin dynasty
Northern dynasties
Tang dynasty
  • Empress Dowager Wu, more commonly known as Wu Zetian
Song dynasty
Yuan dynasty
Qing dynasty
  • Empress Dowager Cixi, de facto ruler of the Qing Dynasty for 40 years
  • Empress Dowager Longyu, abdicated on behalf of Puyi

Japanese empress dowager[edit]

Standard of the Japanese Empress Dowager

In the complex organization of the Japanese Imperial Court, the title of 'empress dowager' does not automatically devolve to the principal consort of an Emperor who has died. The title 'Kōtaigō' can only be bestowed or granted by the Emperor who will have acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne.

The following were granted this Imperial title:

  • HIMEmpress Dowager Kōjun (香淳皇后, Kōjun kōtaigō, 1903–2000), widow of Emperor Shōwa
  • HIM Empress Dowager Teimei (貞明皇后, Teimei kōtaigō, 1884–1951),[1] widow of Emperor Taishō
  • HIM Empress Dowager Shōken (昭憲皇太后, Shōken kōtaigō, 1849–1914),[2] widow of Emperor Meiji
  • HIM Empress Dowager Eishō (英照皇太后, Eishō kōtaigō, 1834–1898),[3] widow of Emperor Kōmei
  • HIM Empress Dowager Yoshiko (欣子皇太后, Yoshiko kōtaigō, 1779–1846),[4] widow of Emperor Kōkaku

Korean empress dowager[edit]

  • Empress dowager Myeongheon (1831–1903), wife and widow of Heonjong of Joseon.


Holy Roman dowager empresses[edit]

Eleonora Gonzaga was empress dowager from 1657–1686.[5]

Although never referred to as a dowager, Empress Matilda was controversially the Holy Roman Empress and continued to be referred to as 'empress' long after her death of first husband Henry V, and her subsequent remarriage. Despite having abandoned the throne of Sicily for her son Frederick II, Empress Constance widow of Henry VI retained her title as empress dowager till her death.

Russian dowager empresses[edit]

Dowager empresses of Russia held precedence over the empress consort. This was occasionally a source of tension. For example, when Paul I was assassinated, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg), for whom this tradition was started, often took the arm of her son Tsar Alexander I at court functions and ceremonies while his wife Empress Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden) walked behind, which caused resentment on the part of the young empress. The same thing happened decades later when Emperor Alexander III died, and the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) held precedence over Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Alix of Hesse), which put an enormous strain on their already tense relationship. The power struggle culminated when the Dowager Empress refused to hand over certain jewels traditionally associated with the Empress Consort.[citation needed]

There have been four dowager empresses in Russia:

  • HIM Empress Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg) Empress Consort of Paul I of Russia
  • HIM Empress Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden) Empress Consort of Alexander I of Russia
  • HIM Empress Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia) Empress Consort of Nicholas I of Russia
  • HIM Empress Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) Empress Consort of Alexander III of Russia

Empress Elizabeth Alexeievna was briefly and concurrently, along with her mother in-law Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, a Dowager empress. She is therefore often forgotten as an Dowager Empress.

South Asia[edit]

Indian empresses dowager[edit]

Queen-Empress Victoria was widowed in 1861, before her accession as Queen-Empress of India. Her son, her grandson and her great-grandson all died before their wives, and their widows were known as empresses dowager in this Indian context. Had George VI, the last Emperor of India, died before the independence of India was proclaimed in 1947, his widow would have been known as the dowager empress of India. However, George VI did not die until 1952, some years after India's formal independence and the renunciation of the title Emperor of India by the British monarch (which took place formally in 1948).

  • Queen-Empress Alexandra (d. 20 Nov. 1925), widow of King-Emperor Edward VII (r. 1901–1910)
  • Queen-Empress Mary (d. 24 Mar. 1953), widow of King-Emperor George V (r. 1910–1936)
  • Queen-Empress Elizabeth (d. 30 Mar. 2002), widow of King-Emperor George VI (r. 1936–1947[a])

Southeast Asia[edit]

Vietnamese empresses dowager[edit]

Đinh-Early Lê dynasties
  • Empress Dowager Dương Vân Nga (952–1000): In 979, her husband Emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh died after an assassination, her son Prince Đinh Toàn ascended to the throne, she became empress dowager and handled all political matters. But later she dethroned her son and ceded the throne to Lê Đại Hành and married him. Once again she took the title of empress consort. Because she was an empress twice with two different emperors, she is called 'Hoàng hậu hai triều' (Two-dynasty Empress).[6]
Lý dynasty
  • Empress Dowager Thượng Dương (?–1073): While she could not give birth to any sons, her husband's concubine Lady Ỷ Lan gave birth to a prince, called Lý Càn Đức. After husband's death, she became empress dowager and declared that she will 'buông rèm nhiếp chính' (regent) for the new seven-year-old emperor, but the mother of the new emperor Lady Dowager Ỷ Lan vehemently opposed and forced her to the death. Her tenure of being an empress dowager is one year.
  • Empress Dowager Ỷ Lan (c. 1044–1117): After dethroning and killing the empress dowager, she became empress dowager and kept all political powers
  • Empress Dowager Chiêu Linh (?–1200): Empress of Emperor Lý Thần Tông. Her son was appointed as crown prince, but later he was dethroned from the seat of crown prince to a normal prince due to an event. Her husband's concubine Lady Đỗ Thụy Châu gave birth to a prince and he was appointed as crown prince later. After her husband's death, the crown prince ascended to the throne, she became empress dowager.
  • Empress Dowager Đỗ Thụy Châu: After her son ascended to the throne, she became the co-empress dowager with Empress Dowager Chiêu Linh.
  • Empress Dowager An Toàn (?–1226): She was famous for misusing authority during the reign of her son Emperor Lý Huệ Tông. Her daughter-in-law, Empress Trần Thị Dung joined Trần Thủ Độ plotting to overthrow the Lý dynasty and replace by Trần dynasty. Trần Thủ Độ forced her son to abdicate and be a monk at the pagoda, her son did as Trần Thủ Độ told and ceded the throne to her granddaughter Lý Chiêu Hoàng, who is the only empress of Vietnamese history, thus, she became grand empress dowager. But later Trần Thủ Độ forced Lý Chiêu Hoàng to get married with his seven-year-old nephew Trần Cảnh and ceded the throne to Trần Cảnh. At that point, An Toàn was no longer an empress dowager.
  • Empress Dowager Trần Thị Dung (?–1259): She became empress dowager after her daughter Lý Chiêu Hoàng ascended to the throne. But later, Lý Chiêu Hoàng ceded the throne to her husband Trần Cảnh. Trần Thị Dung was no longer empress dowager.
Trần dynasty
  • Empress Dowager Tuyên Từ (?–1318): A concubine and younger sister-in-law of Emperor Trần Nhân Tông, she is younger sister of the proper Empress Bảo Thánh. In 1293, Emperor Trần Nhân Tông ceded the throne to his son with Empress Bảo Thánh, Trần Anh Tông, some months later her sister Grand Empress Bảo Thánh died, she became the only surviving consort of Grand Emperor Trần Nhân Tông. 1308, Grand Emperor Trần Nhân Tông died, she became empress dowager. 1314, Emperor Trần Anh Tông ceded the throne to his son Trần Minh Tông, she became grand empress dowager.
Nguyễn dynasty
Empress Dowager Cixi PDF Free Download
  • Duc Tu Cung, mother of the last Vietnamese Emperor Bao Dai.[7]

See also[edit]

  • Queen dowager and queen mother
  • Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire




  1. ^Ponsonby-Fane (1959), pp. 337–338.
  2. ^Ponsonby-Fane (1959), pp. 335–337.
  3. ^Ponsonby-Fane (1959), pp. 334–335.
  4. ^Ponsonby-Fane (1959), pp. 333–334.
  5. ^'Souborný katalog AV ČR - Zápas o funkci nejvyššího štolmistra na dvoře císařovny vdovy Eleonory Gonzagové : Edice důvěrné korespondence bratří Ditrichštejnů z roku 1683 = Struggle for the stallmeister's position on the court of the empress dowager Eleonora Gonzaga. : Edition of private correspondence between the Dietrichstein brothers dated 1683 / Jiří Kubeš'.
  6. ^VnExpress. 'Chuyện về 'hoàng hậu hai triều' Dương Vân Nga - VnExpress'.
  7. ^''.

Works cited[edit]

  • Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC194887.
Retrieved from ''
(Grand) Empress Dowager Zhaosheng
Empress dowager of the Qing dynasty
Tenure21 September 1643 – 5 February 1661
Grand Empress dowager of the Qing dynasty
Tenure5 February 1661 – 27 January 1688
BornBorjigit Bumbutai
(博爾濟吉特 布木布泰)
28 March 1613
(萬曆四十一年 閏二月 八日)
Died27 January 1688 (aged 74)
(康熙二十六年 十二月 二十五日)
Cining Palace, Forbidden City
(m. 1625; died 1643)​
IssuePrincess Yongmu of the First Rank
Princess Shuhui of the First Rank
Princess Shuzhe of the First Rank
Shunzhi Emperor
Borjigit Bumbutai
(博爾濟吉特 布木布泰
博尔济吉特 布木布泰)
Posthumous name
Empress Xiaozhuang Renxuan Chengxian Gongyi Zhide Chunhui Yitian Qisheng Wen
HouseBorjigit (博爾濟吉特)
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
Traditional Chinese孝莊文皇后
Simplified Chinese孝庄文皇后
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXiàozhuāngwén Huánghòu

Bumbutai (布木布泰; 28 March 1613 – 27 January 1688), of the Khorchin MongolBorjigit clan, was the consort of Hong Taiji. She was 21 years his junior. She was honoured as Empress Dowager Zhaosheng during the reign of her son, Fulin, the Shunzhi Emperor, and as Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng during the reign of her grandson, Xuanye, the Kangxi Emperor.

As empress dowager and grand empress dowager, she had significant influence in the Qing imperial court and was highly respected for her political wisdom and insight. After her death, she was posthumously honoured with the title Empress Xiaozhuangwen, although she never held the rank of empress consort during her lifetime.


Family background[edit]

  • Father: Jaisang (寨桑), held the title of a first rank prince (親王)
    • Paternal grandfather: Manggusi (莽古思), held the title of a first rank prince (親王)
    • Paternal aunt: Empress Xiaoduanwen (1599–1649)
  • Mother: Boli (博禮; d. 1654)
  • Four elder brothers
  • One elder sister
    • Primary consort Minhui (1609–1641)

Wanli era[edit]

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Bumbutai was born on the eighth day of the intercalary second lunar month in the 41st year of the reign of the Wanli Emperor, which translates to 28 March 1613 in the Gregorian calendar.

Tianming era[edit]

In March or April 1625, Bumbutai married Hong Taiji and became one of his multiple wives. Prior to this, the Khorchin Mongols had sent Hong Taiji another woman, Jerjer, the future Empress Xiaoduanwen, on 28 May 1614, to strengthen the relationship between the Qing dynasty and the Khorchin. Bumbutai's elder sister, Harjol, the future primary consort Minhui, would marry Hong Taiji on 6 December 1634.

Empress Dowager Cixi Wikipedia

Chongde era[edit]

Bumbutai gave birth on 31 January 1629 to Hong Taiji's fourth daughter, Princess Yongmu of the First Rank, on 2 March 1632 to his fifth daughter, Princess Shuhui of the First Rank, and on 16 December 1633 to his seventh daughter, Princess Shuzhe of the First Rank.

When Hong Taiji conferred titles on his five primary spouses in August 1636, Bumbutai was named 'Consort Zhuang' of Yongfu Palace (永福宮).

On 15 March 1638, Consort Zhuang gave birth to Hong Taiji's ninth son, Fulin.

Shunzhi era[edit]

Hong Taiji died on 21 September 1643 and was succeeded by Fulin, who was enthroned as the Shunzhi Emperor. Bumbutai, as the mother of the reigning emperor, was honoured with the title 'Holy Mother, Empress Dowager' with honorary name 'Zhaosheng'. Her aunt Jerjer, as the empress consort of the previous emperor, was similarly honoured as 'Mother Empress, Empress Dowager'. Hong Taiji's younger half-brother, Dorgon, was appointed as Prince regent to rule on behalf of the Shunzhi Emperor until the emperor reached adulthood. After Dorgon died on 31 December 1650, the Shunzhi Emperor posthumously stripped him of his princely title and had his dead body exhumed and mutilated. It is believed – though not supported by historical evidence – that Empress Dowager Zhaosheng secretly married Dorgon after Hong Taiji's death, since levirate marriage was common among Mongols.

Kangxi era[edit]

Empress Dowager Zhaosheng kept a low profile during the reign of her son and had little interference in politics. The Shunzhi Emperor died on 5 February 1661 and was succeeded by his third son Xuanye, who was enthroned as the Kangxi Emperor. As the grandmother of the reigning emperor, she was honoured as 'Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng'. Since the emperor was underage at the time, the Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor, appointed by the Shunzhi Emperor, ruled on his behalf until he reached adulthood. During this time, Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng advised her grandson to learn from the regents and took charge of his upbringing after the emperor's mother died.

When the Kangxi Emperor grew up and began his personal rule in 1667, he felt threatened by the strong influence of Oboi, one of the four regents. Two years later, Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng assisted her grandson in his plans to get rid of Oboi. Oboi was lured into a trap (forced to seat on a broken chair), placed under arrest, and removed from power. Throughout her life, Bumbutai disliked living in the Forbidden City, despite the luxurious conditions it offered. She also refused to hold any birthday celebrations as she felt that it would be costly.

When Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng fell sick in the autumn of 1687, the Kangxi Emperor personally took care of his grandmother.[1] She died on 27 January 1688.


  • During the reign of the Wanli Emperor (r. 1572–1620):
    • Lady Borjigit (from 28 March 1613)
  • During the reign of Nurhaci (r. 1616–1626):
    • Secondary consort (側福晉; from March/April 1625[2])
  • During the reign of Hong Taiji (r. 1626–1643):
    • Consort Zhuang (莊妃; from August 1636[3]), fourth rank consort
  • During the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor (r. 1643–1661):
    • Empress Dowager Zhaosheng (昭聖皇太后; from 21 September 1643[4])
  • During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722):
    • Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng (昭聖太皇太后; from 5 February 1661[5])
    • Empress Xiaozhuangwen (孝莊文皇后; from October/November 1688[6])


Empress Dowager Cixi Importance

  • As secondary consort:
    • Princess Yongmu of the First Rank (固倫雍穆公主; 31 January 1629 – February/March 1678), personal name Yatu (雅圖), Hong Taiji's fourth daughter
      • Married Birtakhar (弼爾塔哈爾; d. 1667) of the Khorchin Borjigit clan in 1641
    • Princess Shuhui of the First Rank (固倫淑慧公主; 2 March 1632 – 28 February 1700), personal name Atu (阿圖), Hong Taiji's fifth daughter
      • Married Suo'erha (索爾哈) of the Khalkha Borjigit clan in 1643
      • Married Sabdan (色布騰; d. 1667) of the Barin Borjigit clan in 1648
    • Princess Shuzhe of the First Rank (固倫淑哲公主; 16 December 1633 – 1648), Hong Taiji's seventh daughter
      • Married Lamasi (喇瑪思) of the Jarud Borjigit clan in 1645
  • As Consort Zhuang:
    • Fulin (福臨; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661), Hong Taiji's ninth son, enthroned on 8 October 1643 as the Shunzhi Emperor


  • 'Portrait of Consort Zhuang in court costume' (莊妃朝服像) painted on a paper scroll (92 x 53 cm).

  • Portrait of Bumbutai, Consort Zhuang.

  • Official imperial portrait of Bumbutai, Empress Dowager Zhaosheng.

  • Close up of Bumbutai, Empress Dowager Zhaosheng.

Modern references[edit]


  • Xiaozhuang Mishi (孝莊秘史), a novel about Bumbutai, written by Yang Haiwei (楊海薇).
  • Shaonian Tianzi (少年天子), a novel about the Shunzhi Emperor, written by Ling Li.
  • The Green Phoenix: A Novel ofthe Woman Who Re-made Asia, Empress Xiaozhuang, written by Alice Poon.


  • The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty, a long-running Hong Kong television series about the history of the Qing dynasty. Bumbutai appears only in the first season, aired in 1987, in which she is portrayed by Nora Miao.
  • Zhuangfei Yishi (莊妃軼事), a 1989 Chinese television series about Bumbutai, starring Bo Han (柏寒).
  • Yidai Huanghou Dayu'er (一代皇后大玉兒), a 1992 Taiwanese television series about Bumbutai, starring Angela Pan.
  • Xinyue Gege (新月格格), a 1995 Chinese romantic television series based on a novel by Chiung Yao. Leanne Liu portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Princess Huai-yu (懷玉公主), a 2000 Taiwanese romantic television series. Leanne Liu portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Kangxi Dynasty, a 2001 Chinese television series about the Kangxi Emperor. Siqin Gaowa portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Shaonian Tianzi (少年天子), a 2002 Chinese television series based on Ling Li's novel, starring Pan Hong as Bumbutai.
  • The Affaire in the Swing Age, a 2003 Chinese television series depicting the events in the transition of the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty. Niu Li portrayed Bumbutai, who was known as Consort Zhuang in the series.
  • Xiaozhuang Mishi, a 2003 Chinese television series about Bumbutai, starring Ning Jing.
  • Huang Taizi Mishi, a 2004 Chinese television series about Yinreng. Lü Zhong portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Sheizhu Chenfu (誰主沉浮), a 2005 Chinese television series depicting the events in the transition of the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty. Liu Xiaoqing portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Yanhua Sanyue (煙花三月), a 2005 Chinese television series about Nalan Rongruo. Gua Ah-leh portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Shaonian Kangxi (少年康熙), a 2005 Chinese television series about Bumbutai and the young Kangxi Emperor, starring Pan Hong and Deng Chao.
  • Secret History of Kangxi, a 2006 Chinese television series about the Kangxi Emperor. Wu Qianqian portrayed Bumbutai.
  • Da Qing Fengyun, a 2006 Chinese television series based on the romance between Bumbutai and Dorgon. Xu Qing portrayed Xiaozhuang and Zhang Fengyi portrayed Dorgon.
  • The Life and Times of a Sentinel, a 2011 Hong Kong historical fiction television series. Ching Hor-wai portrayed Bumbutai.
  • In Love With Power, a 2012 Chinese television series dramatising the life of Bumbutai during her early years, as consort to Hong Taiji and as mother to the Shunzhi Emperor.
  • The Legend of Xiao Zhuang, a 2015 Chinese television series that chronicles the life of Bumbutai, and the titular character is portrayed by Jing Tian.


  • Europa Universalis IV is a grand strategy PC game which contains a depiction of Bumbutai as one of its loading screens

Empress Dowager Cixi Tomb

See also[edit]



  1. ^Peterson (2000), p. 328.
  2. ^天命十年 二月
  3. ^崇德元年 七月
  4. ^崇德八年 八月 九日
  5. ^順治十八年 正月 七日
  6. ^康熙二十七年 十月


Empress Dowager Cixi Pdf Free Download Torrent

  • Hummel, Arthur W. Sr., ed. (1943). 'Hsiao-chuang Wên Huang-hou' . Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office.
  • Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 49–52. ISBN0-674-01212-7.
  • Peterson, Barbara Bennett (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century (Illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN076560504X.
  • Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions (Reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN052092679X.
  • Wan, Yi; Shuqing, Wang; Yanzhen, Lu; Scott, Rosemary E. (1988). Daily Life in the Forbidden City: The Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912 (Illustrated ed.). Viking. ISBN0670811645.
  • Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese).

Empress Dowager Cixi Book

Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
Chinese royalty
New title
Dynasty established
Empress dowager of the Qing dynasty
21 September 1643 – 5 February 1661
with Jerjer, Empress Dowager (Xiaoduanwen) (1643–1649)
Succeeded by
Alatan Qiqige, Empress Dowager Renxian (Xiaohuizhang)
of the Borjigit clan
Empress Dowager Cihe (Xiaokangzhang)
of the Tunggiya clan
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